If you're thinking about installing an in-home water purification system, it can be helpful to learn about some of the potential sources of impurities. Here are some things that may cause impure water and how water purification systems address each problem.
Water tends to dissolve minerals like iron and salt. This leads to a condition known as turbidity, which you might think of as cloudiness. Oftentimes, this doesn't reduce the drinkability of water, but it can be very unpleasant to look at. Water purification systems generally treat turbidity by using fine meshes as screens to trap particles.
There's nothing inherently wrong with chlorine in your home's water. After all, it helps to prevent diseases like legionella and cholera. However, chlorine can be irritating to your mouth and throat. Some people with sensitive skin and eyes also find it unpleasant during baths and showers. Likewise, chlorine isn't necessary once you're ready to drink the water, and that makes filtering it out an appealing choice.
A common filtration method for chlorine is activated charcoal. The water flows through pebbles of activated charcoal and the chlorine reacts with it, turning into salt pellets. The bits of salt are trapped in the charcoal, and the clean water flows out.
Water flows through pipes that are usually made from metals. These can include older types of pipes made of lead, iron, or steel. Modern ones usually use copper, although some use PVC. As with any other minerals, these metals will dissolve over time when exposed to water. Lead, in particular, is linked to health issues, and it's critical to filter it from your water. Sand filters are ideal for capturing metals, although activated charcoal and other materials can be used in sand-like ways to remove them. Membrane filters are also good at this sort of job.
The mixture of minerals in water can become a soup that promotes bacteria growth. This is one of the main reasons that so many municipal water systems use chlorine. However, bacteria can still appear, especially if chlorine levels are insufficient. Membranes and UV filters are among the better water purification systems for getting rid of bacteria.
Numerous chemical reactions occur when all of these minerals and chemicals come into contact with one another. Sometimes, this releases gases that become suspended in the water and lead to unpleasant smells or tastes. Aeration systems can be used to divert the gases away from the water for purification.
Contact a company that provides water purification systems for more information.